Hip Dislocation is a traumatic injury that occurs when the top rounded part of the femur moves out of the pelvic socket known as acetabulum. The injury mainly occurs due to high impact car accidents. If not treated immediately, it may cease the blood supply to the top of the thigh bone, leading to permanent damage. In most cases, Hip Dislocation also involves injury to the ligaments, muscles, labrum, soft tissues and nerves in the joint.
Hip Dislocation may be classified as:
- Anterior Dislocation: This involves forward rotation of the leg with the hip slightly bent.
- Posterior Dislocation: It is a common injury that causes the leg to rotate inwards towards the middle of the body.
- Motor vehicle collisions
- Falling from a significant height
- Sports injury, particularly in football, snowboarding and skiing
- Previous hip replacement surgery
- Severe pain in the hip
- Visible deformity in the injured leg
- Pain increases when trying to move the leg
- Pain may radiate to lower back, knees and legs
- Difference in the length of both legs, with the injured leg appearing to be shorter
- Numbness and swelling
- Loss of sensation in foot or ankle, in case of nerve damage
Hip Dislocation can be diagnosed with a physical examination by an orthopedic doctor. The position of the leg and visible deformity in the hip is indicative of dislocation. The doctor may conduct certain imaging tests to determine the exact position of the dislocated bone as well as identify damage to the adjacent structures within the joint.
- Reduction: In case of a minor dislocation, the orthopedic doctor may perform a closed reduction procedure to bring the bone back to its normal position. A sedative or anesthesia may be administered before the procedure.
- Medications: The doctor may prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications to provide relief from pain and swelling.
- Assistive Devices: Crutches or cane may be used to avoid bearing on the injured leg.
- Surgery: If the bone pieces or soft tissue fragments block the thigh bane from moving back into the socket, surgical intervention may be required.
- Physical Therapy: After the surgery, the doctor may advise the patient to do some stretching exercises to restore the flexibility of the hip joint.